Is JavaScript frontend or backend?

One of the common questions in web development is the following: Is JavaScript frontend or backend?

Before we answer this question, we should have a basic knowledge about frontend and backend with the differences.

First of all, both frontend and backend are needed when it comes to web development because the process of building and running a website involves a lot of different specializations, including frontend, backend, UX design, SEO expertise, and more.

In this article, we will answer the question about whether JavaScript is frontend or backend by explaining its uses, the differences between frontend and backend, and how JavaScript is used in both.

What is frontend in web development?

A frontend developer is responsible for what you see on the website, including all the interactive features and buttons, navigation menus, and in short everything you can see or interact with.

Frontend developers use JavaScript to add functionality to the website and make various tasks related to web pages interactive, such as submitting forms and validating data.

So, the answer to the question "Is JavaScript frontend or backend?" is frontend.

However, this isn't the whole story. We'll discuss the other part of the truth in the coming parts of this article.

also read: Front-End Developer Skills: Your Path to Success.

What is the backend in web development?

A backend developer is responsible for things the user cannot see on the website, like connecting the website with databases, other websites, and more.

Backend developers build APIs and libraries, and they make sure the website runs well.

JavaScript is not mandatory for backend development, although it is an option. There are several other programming languages available for backend development, including C#, Python, Java, and Ruby

To answer the question, "Is JavaScript frontend or backend?" - it's both. We will provide more details on this concept in the following part.

Frontend languages

graphical user interface, HTML and JS logos

Frontend developers use HTML to build the structure of the web page and CSS for styling it, including adding colors and more advanced features like animations.

They also use JavaScript to add functionality to the web page and create interactive features like form validation and submission.

However, in 2024, it's uncommon to use these languages alone. Frontend developers often use frameworks and libraries to increase efficiency and improve development speed.

These frameworks include JavaScript frameworks like React and Angular, and CSS frameworks like Bootstrap.

While frameworks can simplify development, it's still essential to learn HTML, CSS, and JavaScript to understand how these frameworks work and build a solid foundation for your front-end development skills. 

You won't be able to effectively utilize frameworks without a strong grasp of the core languages they're built upon.

also read: Master the Future: Top Frontend Technologies for 2024. 

Backend languages

Blue elephant plush toy with "PHP" written on it on black laptop computer

When it comes to programming the backend of a website or application, there are many languages to choose from. Some of the popular choices include Python, C#, Ruby, Java, and PHP.

 However, using these languages alone is not as common today. Instead, developers often use frameworks built specifically for each language to streamline development and enhance efficiency.

Here are some popular backend frameworks:

It's important to learn the core language first before diving into its frameworks. A solid understanding of the language itself is essential for effectively utilizing the framework and its capabilities.

Comparison between frontend and backend frameworks

Now, let's make a simple shortcut for the previous parts of the article in the form of a table.

In the table below, we make a simple comparison between frontend and backend in terms of frameworks. 

Front-End Framework

Back-End Framework


Ruby on Rails







We just mention some of the famous frameworks, and as we said before, this is a shortcut for the previous parts.

Frontend responsibilities

A frontend developer is not just responsible for everything you see on the website, but also for its performance, which heavily impacts user experience (UX). This plays a crucial role in a website's success, so keep that in mind.

One of the other important responsibilities of a front-end developer is ensuring the website's design is responsive across different devices.

Google considers mobile responsiveness as one of its factors for ranking websites in search, so you need to prioritize this aspect if you're a front-end developer.

also read: Innovate in 2024: 8 Web App Development Ideas. 

Backend responsibilities

As we mentioned earlier, a backend developer is responsible for everything you can't see on the website. To go into more detail, they are responsible for the following tasks:

  • Transfer and store data from and to databases.
  • Connecting the site to the internet.
  • Connecting the site with other sites.
  • Writing APIs.
  • Creating libraries and more.

Therefore, as you can see, backend developers often have more complex tasks compared to frontend developers.

Is JavaScript frontend or backend?

A black and silver laptop on a table, with codes on the screen.

As we discussed above, JavaScript is the main language in a front-end roadmap. It's used for validation and other tasks like form submission and more.

At the same time, backend developers can use JavaScript in their work through 

a JavaScript runtime environment called Node.js.

This environment is built with JavaScript and makes it easier for backend developers who want to use JavaScript in the backend.

As a result, JavaScript is used for both frontend and backend development. The key difference is that you absolutely need JavaScript in your frontend journey, but it's not the case for the backend. 

You can use other languages like C#, Python, or even Java in the backend.


Can JavaScript be used on the server side (backend)?

Absolutely! JavaScript can be leveraged for backend development through the Node.js environment. This environment allows developers to run JavaScript code on the server, enabling various functionalities.

Why JavaScript for the front end?

JavaScript plays a critical role in front-end development. It empowers developers to create interactive web pages, enhancing user experience and functionality.

Thank you for reading our article. We hope that the information we provided was helpful for your questions and provided you with a good understanding of how to use JavaScript on both the front end and back end of a website.

If you have any questions, please feel free to ask them in the comment section below.

DastN GmbH - Software, Ali Barakat March 4, 2024
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